This guide is dependant on the Publication Manual of this American Psychological Association, 6th ed. It provides selected citation examples for common forms of sources. For more in depth information please consult a print copy of this style manual.
When it comes to best printing results for this guide, use the printer-friendly PDF format.
Review the Sample paper through the APA, with samples of many APA rules.
Keep track of your document references/citations and format your reference lists easily with citation management software.
Number all pages consecutively, beginning with the title page, in Arabic numerals (e.g., 4, not IV) when you look at the upper right-hand corner (Rule 8.03, p. 230).
You will need to cite and document any sources if you presented the ideas from these sources in your own words that you have consulted, even. You need to cite:
- to identify other folks’s ideas and information used inside your essay http://www.paytowritemyessay.com/.
- to share with your reader of the paper where they should look if they wish to get the sources that are same.
A citation must come in two places in your essay:
- in your body of your text (“in-text citations”).
- in the reference list (in the end of the paper).
To introduce other folks’s ideas in text, use the examples that are following
Richardson argues, refers to, explains, hypothesizes, compares, concludes; As Littlewood and Sherwin demonstrated, proved, . etc.
Spelling: Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary print or online is the spelling that is standard for APA journals and books (Rule 4.12, p. 96).
Reference in text
Capitalize all major words in titles of books and articles in the body for the paper (Rule 4.15, p.101). E.g.
In the book Greek Political Thought (2006), Balot argues that. The criticism associated with the article, “The Politics of Paraliterary Criticism”.
NOTE: In reference lists, however, capitalize just the word that is first of title and of the subtitle (after a colon or em dash) and proper nouns.
When quoting from print sources or online articles, supply the author, year, and page number in parentheses (Rule 6.03, pp.170-171). As an example:
Mooney (2000) discovered that . “direct_quotation” (p. 276). “Direct_quotation”. (Walker, 2000, p. 135).
If the quotation is over 40 words, you have to start the quotation on a new line, indent the quotation about Ѕ an inch, and omit the quotation marks (Rule 6.03, p. 171).
Prince Edward Island is a curved slice of land from three to thirty-five miles wide and about one hundred and twenty miles long, lying along the southern rim for the Gulf of St. Lawrence and separated through the mainland of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia because of the narrow waters of Northumberland Strait.(Ives, 1999, p. 1)
When paraphrasing from a source, or when referring to an basic idea found in another work, you are encouraged to supply a page number (Rule 6.04 p. 171).
When citing the same author multiple times in a paragraph, see Citing Paraphrased Work in APA Style through the APA Style Blog.
Many electronic sources do not provide page numbers. In this full case, use paragraph numbers preceded by the abbreviation ‘para.’ (Rule 6.05 pp. 171-172). For example:
(Johnson, 2003, para. 5).
The heading if it is long) (Rule 6.05 pp if a source contains neither page nor paragraph numbers, cite the heading ( shorten. 171-172).
If there is no date of publication, use the abbreviation (n.d.).
List a couple of works by different authors who will be cited inside the parentheses that are same alphabetical order because of the first authors’ surnames and put semicolons between them (Rule 6.16 p. 177).
In APA, the list of sources at the end for the paper (bibliography) is called the reference list. The reference list must include all references cited into the text of the paper.
Your message References should appear at the top of your reference list, and it should really be centred on the page (Rule 2.11, p. 37).
Order of references into the reference list is alphabetical, because of the last name regarding the first author (Rule 6.25, p. 181) or, if author is certainly not available – by title.
Alphabetize letter by letter. “Nothing precedes something”. ‘Brown, J. R.’ comes before ‘Browning, A. F.’.
When it comes to author’s first name use only initials: ‘Smith, J.’, not ‘Smith, Jennifer’.
For a number of works by the same author cite them in your reference list by year of publication utilizing the earliest first – Smith, A. (1999) . Smith, A. (2002)
Second and subsequent lines of each entry are indented 1/2 inch or 5 spaces. The chosen format must be consistent through the references.
Double-space between all lines of the work, including references.
When citing books (not periodicals), capitalize only the first word associated with title and of the subtitle (in other words. the first word after a colon or a dash) and proper nouns (Rule 6.29, p. 185).
If one or more city of publication is placed in the book you will be citing, make use of the first one listed.
When there is no date of publication, use the abbreviation (n.d.).